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Pain Research and Reviews

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Research and published reports are listed by primary investigator, title and year in reverse chronological order.

Kirsch, Daniel L. CES in the treatment of pain-related disorders. Practical Pain Management, 8(3):12-25, 2008.

Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation as a proven effective treatment for fibromyalgia. Townsend Letter. 25(1): 75-79, 2008.

Gilula, Marshall. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia. Expert Review of Devices, 4(4):489-495, 2007.

Tan, Gabriel, Alverez, Julie A., and Jensen, Mark P. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches in pain management. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 62(11):1419-1431, 2006.

Kirsch, Daniel L. Electromedical Treatment of Headaches. Practical Pain Management, 6(8):58-65, 2006.

Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using cranial electrotherapy stimulation to treat pain associated with spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 43(4):461-474, 2006. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006.

Kirsch, Daniel L. Microcurrent electrical therapy (MET): A tutorial. Practical Pain Management, 6(7):59-64, 2006.

Kirsch, Daniel L. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Practical Pain Management, 6(6):60-64,2006.

Plotnick, Stephen E. Finding hope: Alpha-Stim 100 may help clinicians yield better fibromyalgia treatment results. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, P. 82, May 2005.

Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, Larry.The effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on pain associated with fibromyalgia.The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; Volume 8, Number 2.

Tae-Kyu Lee, Kwan-Sung Lee, Shin-Soo Jeun, Young-Kil Hong, Chun-Kun Park, Joon-Ki, Moon-Chan Kim. The control of chronic pain using microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation. From the Department of Neurosurgery, Kangnam St. Mary’s Hospital, College Of Medicine, and The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Presented at the Korea Society for Stereotactic & Functional Neurosurgery April 14, 2004.

Kirsch, Daniel, L. and Smith R. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, depression, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and pain. In Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Paul J. Rosch, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, Pp 727-740, 2004.

Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F. Treating spinal cord injury pain with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (abstract). Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26(3), 2003. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003.

Kirsch, Daniel L. Postmarketing survey of Alpha-Stim CES patients. Summarized here and presented in detail in the book The Science Behind Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation, 2nd Ed., Medical Scope Publishing Corporation, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2002.

Kirsch, Daniel L. A practical protocol for electromedical treatment of pain. Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002.

Kirsch, Daniel, L. Electromedicine: the other side of physiology. Chapter 60 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Acadamy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, Pp 749-758, 2002.

Tomaszek, David E., and Morehead, Kenneth. The use of CES in reducing pain in spinal pain patients. 2001.

Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B. The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control. Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2(2):99-102, 2001.

Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.

Smith, Ray B. Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective. American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2):62-66, 2001.

Tyers, Steve and Smith, Ray B. A comparison of cranial electrotherapy stimulation alone or with chiropractic therapies in the treatment of fibromyalgia. The American Chiropractor, 23(2):39-41, 2001.

Debock, Patrick. European perspective: a comparison between TENS and MET. Physical Therapy Products. September: 28-33, 2000.

Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B. The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review. NeuroRehabilitation, 14(2):85-94, 2000.

Sizer P, Sawyer S, Brismee J, Jones K., Bruce J., Slauterbeck J., Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center and University Medical Center, Lubbock, Texas, USA. The effect of microcurrent stimulation on postoperative pain after patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Presented at the American Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Indianapolis, Indiana; June, 2000.

Tan, Gabriel, Monga, Trilok, and Thornby, John. Efficacy of microcurrent electrical stimulation on pain severity, psychological distress, and disability. American Journal of Pain Management, 10(1):35-44, 2000. Unedited abstract with rebuttal to the editor.

McClure, Mark W., and Morehead, Kenneth. A pilot study of the use of microcurrent stimulation in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. October, 1999.

Alpher, Elliott J., et. al. Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998. Presented at the Ninth Annual Clinical Meeting of the American Academy of Pain Management, Atlanta, Georgia, September, 1998.

Heffernan, Michael. The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control. Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997.

Mercola, Joseph M. and Kirsch, Daniel L. The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy in conventional medical practice. Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 8(2):107-120, 1995.

Boswell, NS. Neuroelectric therapy eliminates xerostomia during radiotherapy - A case history. Medical Electronics, 115:105-107, February, 1989.

Zimmerman, Stephen I, et. al. Biofeedback and electromedicine reduce the cycle of pain spasm pain in low back patients. Medical Electronics, 117:108-120, June 1989. Doctoral dissertation (SZ), City University Los Angeles, 284 pages, 1987.

Brotman, Philip. Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the efficacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting reflex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache. American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989. Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986.
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Roth, Peter M, et. al. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement. American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986.

Boswell, NS, et. al. Noninvasive electrical stimulation for the treatment of radiotherapy side effects. American Journal of Electromedicine, 2(3), 1985. Presented at the International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer, Baltimore, Maryland, July, 1984.

Bauer, William. Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain. Archives of Otolaryngology, 109(6):382-383, 1983.

Lerner, Fred N, et. al. A doubleblind comparative study of microstimulation and placebo effect in short term treatment of the chronic back pain patient. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, 15(11):101-106, 1981.